As per American Heart Association, CABG or coronary artery bypass graft surgeries are one of the most commonly performed vital operations. CABG surgery is recommended to specific groups of patients, who are experiencing significant blockages and narrowings of the arteries of the heart (coronary artery disease). CABG surgery generates recently developed routes throughout obstructed and narrowed arteries, permitting enough blood flow for delivering nutrients and oxygen to the muscle of the heart.
CAD stands for Coronary artery disease happens while atherosclerotic plaque (hardening involved with arteries) builds up in the arteries’ wall supplying the heart. Such plaque is firstly made of cholesterol. The acceleration of plaque accumulation can occur by high blood pressure, smoking, diabetes, and raised cholesterol.
The atherosclerotic procedure causes considerable narrowing in one or more coronary arteries. Whenever coronary arteries constrict more than the range of 50 to 70%, the supply of blood above the plaque becomes insufficient (to fulfill the demand of increased oxygen in times of exercise).
The muscle of the heart in the area of such arteries becomes malnourished of oxygen or ischemic. Patients frequently experience chest pain or angina whenever the supply of the blood oxygen can’t keep up with the requirement.
Whenever a blood clot or thrombus constructs on top of such plaque, the artery becomes fully blocked resulting in a heart attack.
Whenever arteries are constricted in the surplus of 90 to 99%, patients frequently involved with angina or unstable angina (angina at rest).
The resting electrocardiogram or EKG is a recording of the heart’s electrical activity and it can show the symptom of oxygen starvation involved with heart or ischemia or heart attack. Frequently, the resting EKG is usual in patients involved with angina and coronary artery disease.
However, Exercise treadmill tests are helpful screening tests for those patients, who are linked with an average probability of significant CAD or coronary artery disease as well as a normal resting EKG. Such stress tests are approximately 60 to 70% exact in diagnosing significant CAD.
If the stress tests are not able to disclose the diagnosis, considerable accuracy might be obtained through the addition of a nuclear agent (Cardiolite or thallium) intravenously in times of stress tests. Incorporation of the nuclear imaging agent permits imaging of the flow of the blood to various areas of the heart, utilizing an external camera. An area involved with the heart with decreased blood flow in times of exercise, however, normal blood flow at rest, implies considerable artery narrowing in the particular region.
Amalgamating echocardiography (heart muscle’s ultrasound imaging) along with exercise stress testing or stress echocardiography is a very exact technique for detecting CAD. Whenever a considerable blockage exists, the muscle of the heart supplied by the particular artery does not contract besides the rest of the muscle of the heart.
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